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   Early internal devices were constructed of stainless steel. However, since 1984 a titanium alloy has been used instead. Titanium is stronger and lighter with the added benefit of being better accepted by the body's immune system.

Below you may read an extract from the book  “The Metal of the Century” by Nikolaev G.I.,
published by the Metallurgy publishing house, 1987.


   We connect the success of medicine not only with the growing qualification of the personnel, output  of the new preparations, but also with the newest techniques, which development is highly determined by the new perspective materials. It is quite clear, that the clinical physicians, the researchers and the workers out of metal apparatus and tools couldn't help paying attention to such metal as a titanium. The biological inertness of the titanium turned out to be especially important.

    The physicians-traumatologists and the orthopedists widely apply metal constructions of various purpose in their practice: for the joining of splintered bones because of fracture, for the skeleton drawing out, for the substitution of parts of an organism. As a rule, these constructions are made of stainless steel. The steel is durable and is like reliable. But the stainless steel constructions cause various complications for some patients: inflammatory processes with festering and pain. Besides, after a short period of time the steel nail and the plates get destroyed by the action of corrosion. Therefore, an only thing the doctors have to do is to extract the damaged construction, doing extra trauma to the patient.

    There were attempts to use a tantalum - a metal with wonderful corrosion resistance for that purpose. But this metal is heavy very much (over twice heavier than steel), and it is a scarce. Titanium is four times lighter, than tantalum and practically doesn't yield it in resistance. Titanium demonstrates perfect corrosion resistance during the boiling sterilization, it doesn't ruin in an alcohol, an ether and the solution of sublimate, chloramin, in the gastric juice, in other fluids and tissues of human body. The titanium devices are compatible with the bodies physiology and are well tolerated during the growth of the bone and muscles.

An interesting information about medical usage of titanium is given
on the links below the page.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titanium

http://www.timet.com/applicationsframe.html

http://www.titaniuminfogroup.co.uk/documents/technical/36.pdf



The special test equipment Instron 8802
is used for the trials of internal devices
(tests of bending strength, safety margin, working capacity...)